Candling- re-printed from Nov. Beediverse newsletter

1.  6v flashlight with a bulb
2.  A plastic candling dish
3.  “Feather” touch forceps
4.  A dark room

These photos below clearly show what is a ‘good’ cocoon and a cocoon that needs to be discarded.  In one cocoon a bee is clearly outlined showing its feet and mouth parts. The next photo is  empty with the remains of a dead larvae. These are discarded.  (You may want to have a closer look at what is inside these cocoons).  The most common parasitic wasp species have about 10 little wasps per cocoon.

A cocoon filled with a healthy mason  bee. Mouthparts and the forelegs are clearly visible.

An empty cocoon.

Set up candling set up, and turn lights off in teh room.

A cocoon with a parasitic wasp exit hole.

Remove this one! This cocoon contains developing parasitic wasps.

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